A History of Science
Henry Smith Williams 1904
Tome I
Tome II
Tome III Tome IV

Sommaire / Summary
I - The beginnings of science
Prehistoric science

Egyptian science

Astronomical science
Ideas of cosmology
Charms and incantations
Abstract science

Science of Babylonia and Assyria

Babylonian astronomy
Chaldean magic
Babylonian medicine
Estimates of babylonian science

The development of the alphabet

First steps
Egyptian writings
Babylonian writing
The alphabet achieved

The beginnings of greek science

The early greek philosophers in Italy

Xenophanes and Parmenides

Greek science in the early attic period

Leucippus and Democritus
The greek medicine

Post-socratic science at Athens

Greek science of the alexandrian or hellenistic period
Herophilus and Erasistratus
The foundation of mechanics
Ctesibius and Hero

Science of the roman period

Strabo the Geographer
Pliny and Ptolemy

A retrospective glance at classical science

II - The beginnings of modern science
Science in the dark age

Mediaeval science
among Arabians

Arabian astronomy
Arabian medicine

Mediaeval science
in the West

Thirteenth-century medicine
Fifteenth-century medicine
A new general science
Roger Bacon
Leonardo da Vinci

The new cosmology

Johann Kepler
Galileo Galilei

Galileo and the new physics

The law of equilibrium
The equilibrium of fluids
The study of magnetism
Light, heat, pressure
Two Pseudo-sciences: Alchemy and astrology

From Paracelsus to Harvey

The great anatomists
The coming of Harvey
Leeuwenhoeck and bacteria

Medicine in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries

Philosopher-scientists and new institutions of learning

Bacon, Descartes, Leibnitz
Scientific societies

The successors of Galileo in physical Science

Robert Boyle
Mariotte and Von Guericke
Robert Hooke
Christian Huygens
and the composition of light
The white light
The nature of color

The law of gravitation

Instruments of precision 
in the age of Newton

Progress in electricity
from Gilbert to Franklin

The experiments of S. Gray
Experiments of C.Dufay
Dufay's discoveries
Ludolff's experiment
The Leyden jar
W. Watson & B.Franklin
Franklin's discoveries

Natural history
to the time of Linnaeus

III - Modern development of the physical sciences
The successors 
of Newton in astronomy
Hevelius and Halley
Bradley, the aberration of light
French astronomers
Leonard Euler

The progress 
of modern astronomy

William Herschel
The nebular hypothesis of Kant
Nebular hypothesis: Laplace
Asteroids, planets, satellites
Comets and meteors
The fixed stars
The structure of Nebulae
Lockyer's meteoric hypothesis

The new science of paleontology

William Smith and fossil shells
Cuvier and fossil vertebrates
Lyell combats catastrophism
The origin of species
Fossil man
The fossil-beds of America
Paleontology of evolution

The origin and development of modern geology

James Hutton
Modern geology
Neptunists versus plutonists
Lyell and uniformitarianism
Agassiz and the glacial theory
The geological ages
Past, present, and future

The new science of meteorology

The aurora borealis
Evaporation, clouds, and dew
Isotherms and ocean currents
Cyclones and anti-cyclones

Modern theories
of heat and light

Rumford and the theory of heat
Young and the theory of light
Arago and Fresnel

The modern development of electricity and magnetism

Galvani and Volta
Davy and Electric light
Electricity and magnetism
Faraday and induction
Storage batteries
Roentgen rays, or X-rays

The conservation of energy

Mayer's paper of 1842
Mayer and Helmholtz
Joule's paper of 1843
Joule or Mayer?
Kelvin: the dissipation of energy
The final unification

The ether and the ponderable matter

IV - Modern development of the chemical and biological sciences
The Phlogiston theory
in chemistry

The beginnings
of modern chemistry

Joseph Black
Henry Cavendish
Joseph Priestley
Karl Wilhelm Scheele
Lavoisier: modern chemistry

since the time of Dalton

Dalton and the atomic theory
H. Davy and electro-chemistry
Organic chemistry, molecules
Chemical affinity
Periodicity of atomic weights
Spectroscope and camera

Anatomy and physiology
in the eighteenth century

Albrecht von Haller
Morgagni and morbid anatomy
William Hunter
John Hunter
Lazzaro Spallanzani
Chemical theory of digestion
The function of respiration
E. Darwin: vegetable physiology
Zoology (end of XVIIIth c.)

Anatomy and physiology
in the nineteenth century

Cuvier: the correlation of parts
Bichat and the bodily tissues
Lister and the microscope
R. Brown and the cell nucleus
Schleiden, Schwann: cell theory
The cell theory elaborated
Animal chemistry
Blood, muscles, and glands

Theories of organic evolution
Goethe: metamorphosis of parts
Erasmus Darwin
Lamarck versus Cuvier
Tentative advances
Darwin and the origin of species
New champions
The origin of the fittest

Eighteenth-century medicine

The system of Boerhaave
Animists, vitalists, organicists
The system of Hahnemann
Jenner and vaccination
Nineteenth-century medicine
Physical diagnosis
Parasitic diseases
Painless surgery
Pasteur and the germ theory
Experiments with grape sugar
Organisms and the wort of beer
Lister and antiseptic surgery
Preventive inoculation

The new science
of experimental psychology

Brain and mind
Functions of the nerves
Fechner expounds Weber's law
Physiological psychology
The brain as the organ of mind
The structure of the brain

The new science
of oriental archaeology

The riddle of the sphinx
Treasures from Niniveh
How the records were read


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© Serge Jodra, 2006. - Reproduction interdite.